This study employed a qualitative strategy and phenomenological case study, in order to understand how participants understood the role of, and access to, English in different schools. Pakistan has a large English language … © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. The current language policy in general and the language, This study analyses the crisis of English teaching in Pakistan. Recommendations regarding the further development of policy for language in school-level education in Pakistan are presented. The influence of age on the acquisition of English: General proficiency, attitudes and code mixing. Multilingualism and education in South Asia: Resolving policy/practice dilemmas. The purpose sampling strategy used to collect data from respondents about contemporary presentations they used in ESL / EFL classes.Studies assume that the extreme performance and more prominent learning beliefs associated with pre-school English teaching are confusing because they are not supported by bilingual/multilingual training assumptions and are not supported by the adolescent school and social conditions. Multilingual Language Policies and the Continua of Biliteracy: An Ecological Approach: An Ecological Framework for Educational Policy, Research, and Practice in Multilingual Settings, Bilingualism and Special Education: Issues in Assessment and Pedagogy, Towards Multilingual Education: Basque Educational Research from an International Perspective, Using data from Sociolinguistics to teach the target language, Maintenance of identity when there is language shift. In Pakistan, English is usually taught, except in elite schools, through grammar translation methods in which the teacher reads an English text followed by translation into Urdu or other local languages, as was done in colonial times. A satisfactory score of test-retest reliability revealed the scale as a good fit to evaluate school support for In H. Coleman (Ed.). English is perceived as a passport to better employment and upward social mobility in Pakistan. pp 219-244 | It has far more implications for cultural, economic, political, and social issues. Recommendations are made to adopt a more democratic language in education policy. Cenoz, J. However, in this paper I argue that English language should also be discussed in the context of its indispensibility in social mobility and survival in Pakistan. The Aga Khan University Institute for Educational Development presents a global research seminar: Topic: Social Meanings of language policy and practices: A critical linguistic ethnographic study of four schools in Pakistan Presenter: Muhammad Ali Khan. Urdu is its national language and it is the mother tongue of almost 7.57 percent people of Pakistan, although it is used at a wide range in the urban areas of Pakistan. principals and experts observers, the study finds that early English-medium policy appears, delusional as those beliefs are underpinned neither by, tongue based multilingual policy. In conclusion, there is an ongoing debate about the medium of instruction in Pakistan. Tsui, A., & Tollefson, J. W. (2004). By contrast, English is taught as a foreign language in China because it is not a postcolonial language. Learning through a familiar language versus learning through a foreign language – A look into some secondary school classrooms in Tanzania. short essay on importance of english language in pakistan. Ferguson, G. (2013). Drawing from the symbolic power of language and the sociolinguistics of globalization as a theoretical lens, this study involves participants from four types of schools in Pakistan: elite private, elite public, general private, and general public to have participants from different social classes. The contributors all originate from and/or have extensive professional experience in the contexts which they discuss. In N. Rassool (Ed.). Therefore, we propose that the early-English policy may be reviewed, and replaced by mother tongue based multilingual policy. In M. Stephen & N. H. Hornberger (Eds.). This is done first by historically reviewing the English language education policies since Pakistan's independence in 1947, looking particularly at policy objectives, implementation strategies and outcomes, and the rationale for policy change. time. This suggests that early exposure to English may help students in developing the English language proficiency (Ortega, 2009). The origin of Urdu goes back several centuries, and according to some historians, Urdu has evolved from an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the area around Delhi which absorbed words fro… The paper presents pertinent implications. The contributors include development project leaders, teacher trainers, international agency personnel, researchers and English teachers. Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (2002). In a society characterized by acute class division and intense class consciousness, parents from the lower, lower middle or working strata of society aspire to enroll their children in the English-medium schools. Importantly, behind the rapid spread and intense pursuit of English medium schooling is also a belief that the earlier the child is exposed to the English language, the faster she/he will learn the language. p>Schools label themselves to be English medium considering that by implementing textbooks in English language and adopting English as a medium of instruction is sufficient to be English. Sociocultural ecology denotes the languages students come into contact, either passive or active, in domains such as schools, homes, and via media. Students’ skills can be promoted incompetence and autonomy areas by providing them with interpersonal and physical space in learning the target language. The English language in development (p. 10). The differential access to English leads to social stratification because of the crucial role English plays in social mobility. Cell: 042-36673110, Email: Website: U.S.-Pakistan trade in 2019 stood at $6.5 billion, with Pakistan running a modest surplus of $1.3 billion. English-teaching institutions in Pakistan. assessment.
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